Get tutored by the creator of Mooramo

As well as making Mooramo, I also tutor Science and Maths in London and online.

To find out more, visit my website, georgewellertutoring.co.uk

Functions of Sub-cellular Structures

The functions of various sub-cellular structures are listed below.

Diagrams of a plant cell and a bacterial cell have also been included to remind you what the sub-cellular structures look like.

Remember that not all cells contain all of these structures. Check the previous pages to see which types of cells have which sub-cellular structures.

Labelled diagram of a plant cell. Around the outside out the cell is a thick cell wall. The outer edges of the cell are straight lines. Within the cell wall is the cell membrane. The fluid within the cell membrane is the cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm there is a nucleus, several mitochondria, chloroplasts and ribosomes and a vacuole (a large sac).

A plant cell

Labelled diagram of a prokaryotic cell. It is a rounded rod shape with a thick cell wall around it. On the inside of the cell wall is the cell membrane. Inside that is the cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm there are ribosomes, one circular chromosome and a few circular plasmids.

A bacterial cell

Sub-cellular StructureFunction
Cell membraneControls what enters and exits the cell.
CytoplasmIs where most of the cell's chemical reactions take place.
NucleusContains chromosomes, which contain genes, which contain instructions for making proteins.
RibosomesMake proteins.
MitochondriaCarry out aerobic respiration.
ChloroplastsCarry out photosynthesis.
VacuoleHelps to keep the cell rigid.
Cell wallStrengthens the cell.
ChromosomesContain genes, which contain instructions for making proteins.
PlasmidsContain genes, which contain instructions for making proteins.

Aerobic respiration and photosynthesis are processes which will be covered later in the course. For now, just remember that mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration and chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis.

Flashcards

Flashcards help you memorise information quickly. Copy each question onto its own flashcard and then write the answer on the other side. Testing yourself on these regularly will enable you to learn much more quickly than just reading and making notes.

1/10

What is the function of the cell membrane?

2/10

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

3/10

What is the function of the nucleus?

4/10

What is the function of ribosomes?

5/10

What is the function of mitochondria?

6/10

What is the function of chloroplasts?

7/10

What is the function of the vacuole?

8/10

What is the function of the cell wall?

9/10

What is the function of chromosomes?

10/10

What is the function of plasmids?

Donate

Please consider donating to support Mooramo. I am one person doing this whole project on my own - including building the site, writing the content, creating illustrations and making revision resources. By making a one-time or repeating donation you will buy me time to work on Mooramo, meaning that I can get new content on here more quickly.

Donate