GCSE Biology - AQA
1.1.9 - Functions of Sub-cellular Structures
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The functions of various sub-cellular structures are listed below.
Diagrams of a plant cell and a bacterial cell have also been included to remind you what the sub-cellular structures look like.
Remember that not all cells contain all of these structures. Check the previous pages to see which types of cells have which sub-cellular structures.
A plant cell
A bacterial cell
|Cell membrane||Controls what enters and exits the cell.|
|Cytoplasm||Is where most of the cell's chemical reactions take place.|
|Nucleus||Contains chromosomes, which contain genes, which contain instructions for making proteins.|
|Mitochondria||Carry out aerobic respiration.|
|Chloroplasts||Carry out photosynthesis.|
|Vacuole||Helps to keep the cell rigid.|
|Cell wall||Strengthens the cell.|
|Chromosomes||Contain genes, which contain instructions for making proteins.|
|Plasmids||Contain genes, which contain instructions for making proteins.|
Aerobic respiration and photosynthesis are processes which will be covered later in the course. For now, just remember that mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration and chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis.
Flashcards help you memorise information quickly. Copy each question onto its own flashcard and then write the answer on the other side. Testing yourself on these regularly will enable you to learn much more quickly than just reading and making notes.
What is the function of the cell membrane?
What is the function of the cytoplasm?
What is the function of the nucleus?
What is the function of ribosomes?
What is the function of mitochondria?
What is the function of chloroplasts?
What is the function of the vacuole?
What is the function of the cell wall?
What is the function of chromosomes?
What is the function of plasmids?
1.2.1 - Introduction to Specialised Cells
1.1.8 - Structures of Prokaryotic Cells
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